The rails have suffered disproportionally from human changes to the environment, and an estimated several hundred species of island rails have become extinct because of this. The largest of this group is the takahe, at 65 cm (26 in) and 2.7 kg (6.0 lb). In some species, it is longer than the head (like the clapper rail of the Americas); in others, it may be short and wide (as in the coots), or massive (as in the purple gallinules). The name sandpiper refers particularly to several species of small to middle-sized birds, about 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) long, that throng sea The Guam rail came perilously close to extinction when brown tree snakes were introduced to Guam, but some of the last remaining individuals were taken into captivity and are breeding well, though attempts at reintroduction have met with mixed results.. Reptiles, birds and mammals are all different classes. Additionally, many prehistoric rails of extant genera are known only from fossil or subfossil remains, such as the Ibiza rail (Rallus eivissensis). UMMP V55013-55014; UMMP V55012/V45750/V45746 (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Saw Rock Canyon, USA), Rallidae gen. et sp.  The resulting kin-selecting altruistic phenomena reallocate resources to produce fewer young that are more competitive and would benefit the population as an entirety, rather than many young that would exhibit less fitness. indet. Dinkins, Walter (2014): The Rail Bird Hunter's Bible. Birds of the World. The smallest of these is Swinhoe's rail, at 13 cm (5.1 in) and 25 g. The larger species are also sometimes given other names. , Another factor that contributes to the occurrence of the flightless state is a climate that does not necessitate seasonal long-distance migration; this is evidenced by the tendency to evolve flightlessness at a much greater occurrence in tropical islands than in temperate or polar islands. (Late Miocene of Lemoyne Quarry, USA), Rallidae gen. et sp. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand), Rallidae gen. et sp. It is thought that this rail was not distributed along the Colorado River until suitable habitat …  The calls of Rallidae species vary and are often quite loud. Some are also flightless at some time during their moult periods.. A History of Rail Bird Hunting in the USA. , In addition to energy conservation, certain morphological traits also affect rail evolution. These have not been listed here; see the genus accounts and the articles on fossil and Late Quaternary prehistoric birds for these species. , In general, members of the Rallidae are omnivorous generalists.  Loud calls are useful in dense vegetation, or at night where seeing another member of the species is difficult. The three species of tanagers breeding in temperate North America are the scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea), summer tanager (P. rubra), and western tanager (P. ludoviciana).A less showy bird, the hepatic tanager (P. flava), has a greater breeding range: from southern Arizona to central Argentina.The most striking tropical genus is Tangara: about 50 small species sometimes called callistes. Gál, Erika; Hír, János; Kessler, Eugén & Kókay, József (1998–99): Középsõ-miocén õsmaradványok, a Mátraszõlõs, Rákóczi-kápolna alatti útbevágásból. indet. indet. They are especially fond of dense vegetation. Coots are medium-sized water birds that are members of the rail family, Rallidae.They constitute the genus Fulica, the name being the Latin term for "coot". Name "Rail" is derived from French râle, from Old French rasle.  For more detail, see List of rail species. (Late Miocene of Lemoyne Quarry, USA), Rallidae gen. et sp. "A new species of Nesotrochis from Hispaniola, with notes on other fossil rails from the West Indies (Aves: Rallidae)". , In addition to energy conservation, certain morphological traits also affect rail evolution. Most are thought to be monogamous, although polygyny and polyandry have been reported. Fossil species of long-extinct prehistoric rails are richly documented from the well-researched formations of Europe and North America, as well from the less comprehensively studied strata elsewhere: These taxa may or may not have been rails: The presumed scolopacid wader Limosa gypsorum (Montmartre Late Eocene of France) is sometimes considered a rail and then placed in the genus Montirallus.