Also false. The watch shows that it was made for a specific purpose (to tell the time). So clearly this objection is already false, but let’s play along. Furthermore, Paley’s argument is rooted in similarities that he observes between a crafted machine and the natural world. 1.. A watch found out in the heath (countryside) is a product of intelligent design (purpose). Why all the effort? This is the fallacy of Division. This is critical to understand because this error is the foundation of many other errors in the video. which is created – which means the creator must be other than material or immaterial, Space Moving on he keeps referring to the argument as an “analogy” which, as I’ve already pointed out is incorrect. I was asked to defend the assessment  I made  of a critique of Paley‘s argument by YouTube channel “Rationality Rules”, in which I claimed the video was a joke because it misunderstood the argument and used straw man arguments and logical flaws.  Specifically I was asked to defend: 1.) Duane Caldwell | November 30,  2019 | Printer friendly version In this section he also invokes a Circular Reasoning argument, claiming we have “millions of examples of nature creating complex life.” That’s his (false) conclusion.  We have no evidence of that, only evolutionary fairytales that  evolutionists tell us. Paley’s watch maker argument – an argument for the existence of God by the clearly apparent design in nature is one of the most powerful arguments for God’s existence. Key Point Based on the way the world is, God logically exists. How many universes are there? As geneticist Dr. Marciej Giertych puts it:Â, “Darwin assumed that the increase of information comes from natural selection. Paley’s argument can be broadly categorised as a type of teleological argument, and a distinctly modern one. I’ve written a number of articles on why Evolution is impossible. 5. Back, 3.  Dembski, Intelligent Design, p 128 Creation, i.e.  The Universe consists of: Time Perhaps the most famous variant of this argument is the William Paley’s “watch” argument. What is William Paley's argument for design. Therefore, the universe is (probably) a product of intelligent design (purpose) 4. which is created – which means the creator must be beyond or outside of time since he existed “before” he created it;  Thus the creator is eternal, Material/Matter He has in mind an old analog watch, since that is all there were in his time. Improbable” simply fail: “, How does he know the designer is complex? Let’s look a bit more closely at premise (2) in the above argument for the conclusion that the watch had an intelligent designer. His argument played a prominent role in natural theology. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Once again I must wonder if he has ever read Paley’s argument or is intentionally misrepresenting it – which is at best the fallacy of suppressed evidence and at worse the fallacy of lying. He identifies how we can infer a designer – “if the effect is both complex and specified”, Michael Behe’s “irreducible complexity” is also a teleological argument. Thanks, and yes you’re correct on both accounts – like the Pharisees who refused to see the miracle of the healing of the blind man (John 9), skeptics who don’t want to see evidence of God simply won’t. The analogy is used for what analogies are typically used for, to help the reader understand a deeper point, the analogy in and of itself is NOT the argument. I’ll point them out as we come across them. A. Watch’s / universe’s imperfections do not exclude a designer 3. It does this by asserting complexity and order can only be caused by a designer” Published in 1802, it purports to give “evidences of the existence and attributes of … Spell. His argument played a prominent role in natural theology. As I noted above, complexity by itself does not require a designer. ( Log Out /  Therefore, watch / universe is product of intelligent design; it’s the best option, Outline of Hume’s Argument against Design, Nietzsche’s Madman and the Death of God, Sartre’s “Existentialism and Humanism”. Yet the Video blogger never addresses this real argument, thus the glaring flaw, and the straw man argument. Paley’s teleological argument for the existence of God makes an analogy between a watch and the universe. The “watchmaker analogy” that outlines the argument with regard to timepiece dates back to Cicero. But natural selection reduces genetic information. An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly (that is, by continuously improving the initial function, which continues to work by the same mechanism) by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional.”[4]. But as the main point has already been refuted, in the interest of brevity I will not bother with every sub-mistake under his main mistake.  Â, 5. The Problem of Evil “Darwin assumed that the increase of information comes from natural selection. ( Log Out /  Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Answer where the necessary increase in information comes to do things like change body types. False Analogy Fallacy (Mistake @ 1:35) Special Pleading / Self Refuting (Mistake @ 5:00) Thus examining the evidence as Paley did, one must conclude that God is eternal, and thus uncreated, and thus without beginning or end, and thus uncaused and un-designed. He concludes that because the universe is complex, its designer must be complex – the way a watch or the universe is complex. First:  problems in the design does not negate the fact that we can still detect design.  If a house is half burned down, we can still detect it was once a house. When you take a look at the rock, you could surmise the rock had always been there. If he came across a mechanical watch on the ground, he would assume that its many complex parts fitted together for a … So this argument falls along with the false contention of being self refuting. Our ignorance about a watch / universe does not mean we can’t draw some inferences about watch / universe, B. I think William Paley’s argument is very reasonable to the idea that it merely implies that the imaginary function of the watch would suggest the existence of something conscious and intelligent and therefore would mean that nature would require a much greater designer than the watch, that designer is god and that he clearly distinguishes that the watch and nature are two different complexities and … If there are problems in a design we can still detect it was designed.Â. The Watchmaker Argument: Fredrik Bendz summarizes a number of objections to Paley's argument—most relating to the fallacy of false analogy. Created by. Again at this point, he’s not arguing against Paley, he’s arguing against the Judeo-Christian God.  At that point I need merely prove why there isn’t a multi-verse, since he’s already conceded a designer. First we note he starts with his misunderstanding of the usage of complexity that we noted above, then states that God (the designer) must be complex: How does he know the designer is complex? Michael Behe’s “irreducible complexity” is also a teleological argument. Does the universe exhibit design, like a watch? 2 Paley’s initial discussion—in which he sets out and defends his argument—may be thought of as having four parts. There must be an apparent reason for the complexity and a goal or purpose for the complexity.  There is clearly an apparent reason behind the complexity in a watch: its many “contrivances” allow it to keep time according to the specification of hours, minutes and seconds.  Not so with crystals.  They exhibit merely a complex ordering of matter, with no apparent goal or purpose. A large premise in Humes argument however is that an animal does not need a creator. In his work, Paley uses a teleological argument based on the watchmaker analogy. His argument went something like this. By the way, I suspect the word “tuning” was accidentally omitted after the word “fine” in the phrase “to try escape the inescapable conclusion of fine in the universe”. William Paley (1743 - 1805) was a British philosopher whose writings on natural theology and moral/political philosophy were largely influential amongst British and American thinkers. At most I will grant the argument does not identify the Abrahamic God – but that’s not the point of the argument. So I’ve already answered #1 – it does not represent the argument accurately, but let me apply it to this video: We cannot figure out everything about the watch / universe, so we can’t infer it’s designed, 4. Paley argues that, if one was to find a watch laying on the ground and was to be aske… Here he states “The watchmaker argument acts as if a watch maker creates a watch from nothing.”  No it doesn’t.  Ex Nihilo is a matter of Christian doctrine ( Gen 1.1-2),  but the watchmaker argument has nothing to say about where the watchmaker gets materials for the watch, nor how the creator created the universe. Another common objection is that complexity doesn’t require a designer. Once again he puts up a straw man argument claiming the argument states that nature is both uncomplicated and random, and also complicated and ordered. He’s trying to refute the Judeo-Christian one, unique God. So let’s formally show him where he’s wrong. His most famous argument is called the watchmaker analogy, where Paley makes an inference from the complexity of living systems to a "designer". Today, as in his own time (though for different reasons), Paley is a controversial figure, a lightning rod for both sides in the contemporary … But in doing so he concedes the existence of a designer. What is design argument in simplest form? In the Paley’s teleological argument is: just as the function and complexity of a watch implies a watch-maker, so likewise the function and complexity of the universe implies the existence of a universe-maker. State Paley’s argument for God’s existence as clearly as possible. An overview of William Paley's Watch analogy for students of religious studies and philosophy of religion. Back, Featured Image [note: the author formatted this is a way that did not leave space for a page break. That is the essence of the argument of Michael Ruse to Ben Stein in “Expelled no Intelligence Allowed” – that life may have developed into the needed complexity on the back of crystals (1 minute video).  What Ruse and many others skeptics miss, is that the identification of design is contingent not only on just complexity, put as Dembski put it “specified complexity” [emphasis mine] or as Paley put it “purposeful design”. Thanks. Because it undercuts two arguments used to try to defeat Paley’s watchmaker argument. Ignores Natural Selection (Mistake @ 3:52) An Intelligent agent to conceive of, and execute the entirety of the plan.  These components can be identified in the first three iterations of the teleological argument above, and I submit they are also implicit in Paley’s argument which include “purposeful design” and “contrivances.”  Indeed any object that requires forethought and planning to be produced is by definition an object that can only be produced by Intelligent Design. Argument For God Through Design deny the status of such as a wonder, it would be a weak argument as even scientists today are left speechless about many natural events. Once again he’s just showing his anti-Christian bias as he puts up another straw man argument directed at Christianity, not Paley’s argument. Once again he’s missed the point.  As noted above, complexity is a component in identifying an intelligent designer, but it is not the only component. He then goes on to “formally” attempt to debunk the argument. Plato the Soul Man. Self contradicting (mistake @ 5:54) Though many objections are put forth, all fail spectacularly for usually the same small set of reasons: either because the skeptic doesn’t understand the argument and thus raises irrelevant objections – straw man arguments. 3. Plato’s View of Justice and the Soul. In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched… Watch / universe are not one out of possible combinations 5. First, to think of God in those terms is to fall to the error of, The Universe/Creation was created out of nothing, William Paley’s Intelligent Contrivance, Kestrels and Cerevisiae, Mt Improbable and other impossible evolutionary dreams, Everyone should have one (The Watchmaker Analogy), https://phylogenous.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/william-paleys-intelligent-contrivance/, Distant Starlight Unlikely Solutions Part 1: Light In Transit, 15 Reasons:Why Evolution has never happened-Part 3, 15 Reasons:Why Evolution has never happened-Part 2, 15 Reasons: Why Evolution has never happened – Part 1, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 5: The Trinity, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 4: The Holy Spirit, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 3: God the Father, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 2: Jesus – The Holy One Denied, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 1: Jesus – the Holy One Revealed, Questions for Question Evolution Day 2020. Those things exist because of human sin, not because of the creator’s design.  So once again he has left the teleological argument and is showing his anti-Christian bias, stating this argument does not support the monotheistic God’s and “certainly not” the Abrahamic God. What are his straw man objections? He then goes on to state that the argument says that “Complexity Requires a designer (1:18). What evidence do we have that God is complex?  How did he examine God? Hume does not But Paley’s concepts of “purposeful design” [5] and “contrivances” [6] anticipate these concepts, and thus his argument is clearly a teleological one – not an argument based on analogy. Order or intricacy of watch / universe is not merely our human mind imposing order on watch / universe, 7. One of the most famous proponents of the teleological argument for the existence of God is the 18th-century philosopher, William Paley. To follow the example in the argument, we know the watch is complex by examination. 3.) Watch Michael J. Behe, Darwin’s Black Box – The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, New York: Free Press, 1996, p. 39 Watch / universe is not product of impersonal principle of order, 6. What makes it the case that this is a better explanation of the existence of the watch than an explanation which attributes the existence of the watch to a series of more or less random natural events? Basically, it was the watchmaker analogy that was used, “To support argument for the existence of God and for the intelligent design of the universe in both Christianity and Deism.” Click to see full answer. One need merely take a look at all the skeptics who try (unsuccessfully) to refute it. (Ps 90.2). Even Richard Dawkins, an opponent of the design argument, described himself as a neo-Paleyan in The Blind Watchmaker. Paley used a watch to illustrate his point. Here’s one that deals with a topic we’ve been discussing – specified complexity – and why Neo-Darwinism – and Dawkins’ “Mt. The teleological argument – from the Greek word τελος (telos) meaning “end” or “goal” are arguments based on the observation that most of nature exhibits  a clearly apparent goal or design. Here he invokes the common atheist “Who designed God?” argument by trying to “apply the argument to itself.”. It is also referred to as the Design Argument as it looks for evidence of God’s existence through design in creation. Paley’s Watchmaker argument – undefeated – composite by Duane Caldwell, featuring Now he says it does – but adds a caveat – it implies more than 1 designer by analogy – incorrectly using his mistaken understanding of an analogy as indicated above. Here’s one that deals with a topic we’ve been discussing – specified complexity – and why Neo-Darwinism – and Dawkins’ “Mt. An overview of William Paley's Watch analogy for students of religious studies and philosophy of religion. Test. The best option is that the watch is product of intelligent design. The universe resembles, is like the watch. The universe resembles, is like the watch. Just as a watch, with its inteligent design and complex function must have been created by an intelligent maker: a watchmaker, the universe, with all its complexity and greatness, must have been created by an intelligent and powerful creator. One of his concluding statements is rather revealing: “Though the watch maker argument is thoroughly flawed it is nevertheless what I personally consider to be one of the best arguments for a deity that has ever been.”. Or second, the attempted rebuttals fail because of the use of other logical fallacies. We know evolutionists know no such thing because they can’t even figure out where the abundance of species and body types originate that are found in the Cambrian Explosion. 2. "Paley's argument is made with passionate sincerity and is informed by the best biological scholarship of the day, but it is wrong, gloriously and utterly wrong. His argument played a prominent role in natural theology. The argument from design is sometimes call the teleological argument. In Paley’s Watch Argument, the watch is used as an analogy of the universe while the watchmaker is used as an analogy of God. 11. For the sake of meaningful contrast, Paley emphasizes three distinguishing properties lacked by the former and possessed by the latter. Full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s06w4pXvUyk&t=400s Join George and John as they discuss and debate different Philosophical ideas. William Paley begins his “Argument from Design” by enumerating key differences between two obviously dissimilar objects—a stone and a watch. How do I know? But Paley’s concepts of “purposeful design” [5] and “contrivances” [6] anticipate these concepts, and thus his argument is clearly a teleological one – not an argument based on analogy. And that is precisely what one must do to prevent the watchmaker argument from being completely self refuting.”. So the incarnation of Jesus reveals God in a way no rational argument can.  So in summary, the argument doesn’t identify God, but neither does it preclude the Abrahamic God. The universe is vastly more complex and gigantic than a watch. On Paley’s use of “contrivances” Behe explains the concept thus: “By irreducibly complex [emphasis his] I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. Change ). William Paley’s Watch maker argument He’s not making an analogy between the watch and the universe.  His argument is based on the identification of design. To follow the example in the argument, we know the watch is complex by examination. ii. Paley’s argument can be seen to be fairly weak due to a watch being man made where as a stone is something that was created in the christian God’s 7 days of creation. 4. William Paley The Watch and the Watchmaker [From Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature (1802), pp. Basically, this argument says that after seeing a watch, with all its intricate parts, which work together in a precise fashion to keep time, one must deduce that this piece of machinery has a creator, since it is far too complex to have simply come into being by some other means, such as evolution. “…when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive (what we could not discover in the stone) that its several parts are framed and put together for a purpose, e. g. that they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day: that if the different parts had been differently shaped from what they are, of a different size from what they are, or placed after any other manner, or in any other order, than that in which they are placed, either no motion at all would have been carried on in the machine, or none which would have answered the use that is now served by it.”, William Paley’s Intelligent Contrivance, Kestrels and Cerevisiae (blog), March 10, 2011, https://phylogenous.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/william-paleys-intelligent-contrivance/, 6. Basically, this argument says that after seeing a watch, with all its intricate parts, which work together in a precise fashion to keep time, one must deduce that this piece of machinery has a creator, since it is far too complex to have simply come into being by some other means, such as evolution. ( Log Out /  )Paley's teleological argument is based on an analogy: Watchmaker is to watch as God is to universe. If the video is a “joke” then why does it seem to represent the argument accurately according to Christian presentations and others’? 2. The argument hinges upon the assumed premise that 'like causes resemble like effects'. 2. And what can we learn from the creation?  We learn that God is timeless, eternal, and all powerful among other things.  How do we know this?  As already stated, from an examination  of the nature of creation. Winner success concept © Mbolina | Dreamstime.com  used by permission. The identification of design requires a designer. I. Analogical Teleological Argument : If I stumbled on a stone and asked how it came to be there, it would be difficult to show that the answer, it has lain there forever is absurd. In order for him to make that claim he must be able to state the origin of life, and demonstrate how nature did it from the beginning to end  – not with fuzzy evolutionary just-so stories, full of maybe’s and perhaps, and could be’s – but actual step by step scientific processes.  Failing that, it’s his belief, not science.  He’s just stating it’s true by fiat using the fallacy of an appeal to ignorance and hope you don’t know any better. The reason they tend to a goal (the target) is because they have been set in motion “under the direction of someone with awareness and with understanding.” [1]  In other words, they have a goal maker, or put another way an intelligence with a design in mind – to hit the target. That is a clear-cut true statement. Here he states, “The watch maker argument doesn’t support theism. “First and foremost what single handedly debunks the watchmaker argument is that it’s a false analogy.” Does a design imply a designer? You’ll see it if he eliminates these inferior options or rationalizations: 1.. We have not seen a watch before or being made, so we really can’t infer it’s designed, 2. 7. supplying life giving water. How might we learn something about God? On that see here or here. He identifies how we can infer a designer – “if the effect is both complex and specified”[2] furthermore he notes, we must rule out automatic or natural processes, so we must also establish contingency, or as he puts it, to infer design, “we must establish three things: contingency, complexity and specification. Therefore, the universe is (probably) a product of intelligent design (purpose). Skeptics routinely give these two objections to the Paley’s argument: Objection 1. What are the similarities between Paley’s watch argument and Thomas’s fifth way? Terms in this set (29) Form of Argument by Analogy. False Cause Fallacy   (Mistake @ 2.44) It’s on all that has to happen to bring it about – the planning, purpose, the assembling of parts in a particular order to achieve a specific end.  All these speak to design and purpose, not merely to just complexity. Regarding Special Pleading Drops of Mercy – So clearly he doesn’t know God is complex by examination. Flashcards. First, to think of God in those terms is to fall to the error of Anthropomorphism – God is not complex in that manner – with many pieces and parts and complex workings the way a watch or the universe is.  God is immaterial and thus has no such parts. But once again, Paley’s point is not on the complexity alone. STUDY. keptics routinely give these two objections to the Paley’s argument: the analogy in and of itself is NOT the argument. The argument itself is a posteriori and inductive meaning that everyone can understand and relate to it and it is easy to understand. So why does he think God is complex? This is what we expect from the creator of life and the universe. 1. 4. The Argument fails because complexity doesn’t require a designer. From Youtube bloggers to high profile atheists like Richard Dawkins, doubters repeatedly try to show the argument invalid – and fail miserably. The analogy between telescope and eye, between watch … Paley talks about “contrivances” with clearly designed goals and purposes – which results in complexity. Showing why belief in Christianity is rational. Incompetent Design (Mistake @ 7:40) “… It commits a false cause fallacy. At this point I’m wondering if he’s even read Paley’s argument because Paley does not make this assertion. Back, 4. Statement of the Argument In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched my foot against a stone, and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer, that, for anything I knew to the The argument makes use of an anaology as Paley compares a watch and the Earth/universe. Improbable” simply fail: “Mt Improbable and other impossible evolutionary dreams“. Objection 2. William Dembski’s “specified complexity” is a teleological argument. Presumptions God exists The world has been created by God Paley attempts to show that just as a watch, which is a complex device that fulfills a certain function, requires a maker, the universe, which is equally sophisticated and has complex life forms must have a designer. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Even if it were accepted to be a sound argument (‘which it’s not’ he puts on the screen), it would only prove that the universe had a universe designer.”  So once again, going down this path, he concedes God, but now he’s playing ignorant on what we mean by “God”.  Well I’ve already defined that in number 6 above. Bryana_Polk2. The point of the argument is to prove God exists – which it does.  Besides, the reason God sent Jesus was to reveal God. And we know this from all the genetic operations studies that we have.”[7] video. But Paley’s concepts of “purposeful design”[5] and  “contrivances”[6] anticipate these concepts, and thus his argument is clearly a teleological one – not an argument based on analogy. The various pieces and parts were fashioned to achieve a particular end or goal, and thus they have an intelligent goal maker. “…It completely ignores evolution by natural selection”, For evolution to be even remotely feasible, it must explain 1. Part 3. 9. So I am inserting the break at the top — NR] Paley’s teleological argument is: just as the function and complexity of a watch implies a watch-maker, so likewise the function and complexity … Arrows neither aim themselves, nor shoot themselves. Back, 5.  On Paley’s use of purposeful design: Thes… 2. The critique asserts that “The Watchmaker analogy is a recurring argument for a designer which by way of analogy asserts that complexity requires a designer.” (Time mark 0:16). And we know this from all the genetic operations studies that we have.”, The only thing in Neo-Darwinism that can add information is mutations – and they are almost, He further claims “We know for a fact that nature can, does and has produced remarkably complex organisms without a conscious and intelligent behind them.”(4:14) We know no such thing. It appears to be a logical argument – most people would agree that if they were to come across a watch they would assume it had a designer. “Every indicator of contrivance, every manifestation of design, which existed in the watch, exists in the works of nature; with the difference, on the side of nature, of being greater and more, and that in a degree which exceeds all computation. Here he’s just spouting Evolutionary dogma while, I’ve written a number of articles on why Evolution is impossible. Behe explains the concept thus: “By. Most naturalists take for granted that Hume soundly defeated Paley's argument. 1. 2.) )  Because Natural Selection is a process that REMOVES information, it doesn’t add it. it looks to the end purpose of things. The only thing in Neo-Darwinism that can add information is mutations – and they are almost always negative in impact (video). Paley presented an argument which contains an analogy. If we came across this watch even if we didn’t PLAY. Why is this important? William Paley's watchmaker analogy is basically a teleological argument. How does Paley answer the objection that the universe could have come into order and pattern by chance? )  The argument speaks to the designer of the universe. So we’ll address that here – by briefly explaining the main argument.). I could take this point by point – e.g. The universe is vastly more complex and gigantic than a watch. Second this objection assumes that in the group of complex things,  God is like the other complex things. To deny that there exists items that are “uncomplicated and random” and other items that are “complicated and ordered” is to deny reality.  So he’s really quite deceptive here, making claims the argument does not make, but then, that’s what straw man arguments do. Paley also addressed a number of possible counterarguments: Objection: We don’t know who the watchmaker is. from Expelled, No Intelligence Allowed, Documentary by Ben Stein, 2008 The Argument fails because the analogy fails. But natural selection reduces genetic information. Please elaborate. So what he shows here is he’s not trying to refute Paley’s argument.
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